Autism is a developmental disorder its trouble with social interaction, communication and by restricted & repetitive behaviour.
It’s usually notice signs in the first two to three year.
some children with autism reach their milestone at a normal pace & then worsen.
Early speech and behaviour intervention can help child with autism to gain self care, social skill, and communication skill.
- Combination of genetic and environmental factor
- Autism has a strong genetic basis
- complexity arise to interactions among multiple gens
- also cause of autism is synaptic dysfunction
In environmental factor
- Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy ex. havy metals and particulates increase risk of autism
- Certain food
- infectious disease
- phthalates and phenols use in plastic products
- brominated flame retardant
- illicit drugs
- prenatal stress
Symptoms :- Impairment in social interaction
– Impairment in communication
– Restricted interests
– Repetitive behaviour
1. Social development
- Autistic infants shows less attention to social stimuli, smile, and look at other, less often respond, less to their own name
- They have less eye contact, turn taking and do not have the ability to used simple movement express themselves such as pointing at thing
- three to five year old child are less likely exhibit
- social understanding
- approach other spontaneously
- imitate and respond to emotions
- communicate non verbally &
- take turn with other
- Older children and adult with ASD perform worse on tests of face and emotion recognition
- Making and maintaining friendship, often prove to be difficult for those.
- Differences in communication may be present from the 1st year of life
- include delayed onset of babbling
- unusual gestures
- diminish responsiveness
- vocal pattern
- That not synchronised with the caregivers
- They are less likely to make request or share experience and are more likely to simply repeat others word or reverse pronounce.
- Child with autism may have difficulty with imaginative play and with developing symbols in to language.
3. Repetitive behaviour
- Stereotype behaviour : repetitive movement such as hand flapping, head rolling and body rocking
- Compulsive behaviour : such as placing objects in a specific order checking thing and hand washing
- Sameness : resistance to change
- Ritualistic object : unvarying pattern such as unchanging menu, or a dressing ritul.
- Restricted interest : less interest in any television program, toy or game, less intensity of focus
- Self injury : behaviours such as eye pocking, skin picking, hand bitting, and head banding.
- Sensory abnormality are found in over 90% of those with autism and are considered core feature
- An estimated 60-70% of autistic people have motor signs that include poor muscle, tone poor motor planning, and toe walking.
- It’s based on behaviour
- Simple symptoms include lack of social, emotional, reciprocity, stereotyped, repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language preoccupation with unusual object.
- Autism diagnostic interview revised ( ADI-R)
- Autism diagnostic observation schedule ( ADOS)
- Childhood autism rating scale ( ARS )
Differential diagnosis for ASD
- Intellectual disability
- Hearing impairment
- Specific language impairment such as landau-kleffner syndrome
- The main goal when treating children with autism are to lessen associated deficits and family distress, increase quality of life, and functional independent.
- Family and the educational system are the main resources of treatment.
- Intensive sustained special education programs and behaviour therapy early in life can help children acquire self care, social and job skill, often improve functioning, decrease symptom severity and maladaptive behaviour.
- Available approach include applied behaviour analysis, developmental models, structure teaching, speech & language therapy and occupation therapy.
- Teach parent how to implement various ABA & DSP treatment.
- Intensive ABA treatment has effectiveness in enhancing globe functioning in preschool children and well established for improving intellectual performance of young children.
- Psychoactive drug or anticonvulson
- Music therapy may improve social interaction, verbal communication and non verbal communication.
- Promotion emotional responses and self expression music give children with autism the chance to move, dance, sing, make noise as method of expressing emotion stimulates cognitive function.
- It also promotes learning, relaxation, self expression and relatedness while simultaneously addressing multiple developmental issues.