ADHD ( attention deficit hyper active disorder)

Attention deficits hyperactive disorder of neurodevelopmental type. it is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, difficulty controlling behaviour which is not appropriate for a person’s age.

The symptoms appear before a person is twelve year old.

In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance.


A child with ADHD inattentive type has most or all of following symptoms.

  • Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another
  • Have difficulty maintaining focus on one task
  • Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless doing something they find enjoyable
  • Have difficulty focusing attentionvon organizing or completing a task
  • Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities
  • Appear not to be listening when spoken to
  • Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly
  • Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others
  • Struggle to follow instructions
  • Have trouble understanding details,overlooks details

A child with ADHD hyperactive impulsive type has most or all of following symptoms

  • Fidget or squirm a great deal
  • Talk nonstop
  • Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight
  • Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, doing homework, and story time
  • Be constantly in motion
  • Have difficulty performing quiet tasks or activities
  • Be impatient
  • Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences
  • Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turn in games
  • Often interrupt conversations or others’ activities


  • Most ADHD cause are of unknown
  • it is believed to involve interaction between genetics, environmental and social factors
  • certain cause are related to previous infection or trauma to the  brain


  • Typically a number of genes are involved, many of which directly affect dopamine neurotransmission.


  • Alcohol intake during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Social fectors

  • It may reflect a dysfunctional family or a poor education system rather than problem with the individuals themselves


BEHAVIOUR THERAPY is a first line treatment for ADHD

Include psychoeducational input

  • Behaviour therapy
  • Cognitive behaviour therapy
  • Interpersonal psychotherapy
  • Family therapy
  • School based intervention
  • Social skill training
  • Behaviour peer intervantion
  • Organization training

Regular physical exercise particularly aerobic exercise is effective

It improve better behaviour and motor abilities, improve executive function ( like attention, inhibitory, control & planning, other cognitive domains) faster information processing speed and better memory.

Regular aerobic exercise include better overall function, reduce ADHD symptoms, better selfesteem, reduce levels of anxiety and depression, fewer somatic complaints, better academic , classroom behaviour and  improved social behaviour.


Stimulant medication and non stimulant medication are used for reduce symptoms


Dietary modification may be of benefit to a small proportion of children with ADHD

Gluter-free diet